Transportation Sector – Energy Use Analysis
  1990   2014 2015
Total Transportation
 
Total Energy Use (PJ) 1,877.89   2,646.73 2,637.47
Passenger Transportation 1,154.00   1,350.77 1,368.08
Freight Transportation 670.54   1,184.19 1,154.82
Off-Road1 53.35   111.77 114.57

Energy Use by Transportation Mode (PJ)
Cars 705.47   533.39 530.86
Light Trucks 313.05   680.50 707.28
Medium Trucks 120.59   314.77 305.35
Heavy Trucks 253.63   497.25 486.89
Motorcycles 2.37   5.43 5.48
School Buses 13.45   12.11 12.21
Urban Transit 24.63   39.79 37.26
Inter-City Buses 7.92   6.18 5.85
Passenger Air 180.92   264.03 266.67
Freight Air 6.52   5.99 5.54
Passenger Rail 3.75   1.99 2.11
Freight Rail 85.71   93.42 92.38
Marine 106.52   80.11 65.02
Off-Road1 53.35   111.77 114.57

Energy Use by Energy Source (PJ)
Electricity 3.10   3.79 3.81
Natural Gas 1.66   3.91 3.92
Motor Gasoline 1,120.39   1,394.29 1,484.22
Diesel Fuel Oil 469.80   845.25 828.15
Ethanol 0.00   68.24 0.00
Biodiesel Fuel 0.00   0.00 0.00
Light Fuel Oil and Kerosene 0.00   0.00 0.00
Heavy Fuel Oil 60.14   50.78 34.56
Aviation Gasoline 5.51   1.90 2.17
Aviation Turbo Fuel 181.93   268.12 270.05
Propane 35.36   10.45 10.60

Activity
Passenger-kilometres (millions) 492,296   742,317 761,751
Tonne-kilometres (millions) 574,543   959,523 971,527
Passenger Transportation Energy Intensity Excluding Non-Commercial Aviation (MJ/Pkm) 2.26   1.79 1.77
Freight Transportation Energy Intensity (MJ/Tkm) 1.17   1.23 1.19
Total Change in Energy Excluding Off-Road and Non-Commercial Aviation (PJ) 0.00   729.27 717.40

Energy Indicator Analysis
 
Change in Energy Due to (PJ)
Activity Effect 0.00   971.21 1,020.34
Structure Effect 0.00   325.23 339.83
Energy Efficiency Effect 0.00   -567.17 -642.78

Total Passenger Transportation
 
Total Energy Use (PJ) 1,154.00   1,350.8 1,368.08
Total Energy Use Excluding Non-Commercial Aviation (PJ) 1,114.73   1,330.35 1,347.85

Energy Use by Transportation Mode (PJ)
Cars 705.47   533.39 530.86
Light Trucks 215.48   487.85 507.64
Medium Trucks 0.00   0.00 0.00
Heavy Trucks 0.00   0.00 0.00
Motorcycles 2.37   5.43 5.48
School Buses 13.45   12.11 12.21
Urban Transit 24.63   39.79 37.26
Inter-City Buses 7.92   6.18 5.85
Air 180.92   264.03 266.67
Rail 3.75   1.99 2.11
Marine 0.00   0.00 0.00
Off-Road1 0.00   0.00 0.00

Energy Use by Energy Source (PJ)
Electricity 3.10   3.79 3.81
Natural Gas 1.61   3.47 3.35
Motor Gasoline 902.44   962.97 1,025.89
Diesel Fuel Oil 47.15   64.17 63.24
Ethanol 0.00   47.29 0.00
Biodiesel Fuel 0.00   0.00 0.00
Light Fuel Oil and Kerosene 0.00   0.00 0.00
Commercial Aviation – Aviation Gasoline 1.56   1.31 1.64
Commercial Aviation – Aviation Turbo Fuel 140.09   242.30 244.80
Non-Commercial Aviation – Aviation Gasoline 3.87   0.56 0.49
Non-Commercial Aviation – Aviation Turbo Fuel 35.39   19.87 19.74
Propane 18.79   5.04 5.13

Activity
Passenger-kilometres (millions) 492,296   742,317 761,751
Energy Intensity Excluding Non-Commercial Aviation (MJ/Pkm) 2.26   1.79 1.77
Total Change in Energy Excluding Non-Commercial Aviation (PJ) 0.00   215.61 233.12

Energy Indicator Analysis
 
Change in Energy Due to (PJ)
Activity Effect 0.00   501.7 536.34
Structure Effect 0.00   28.15 29.94
Energy Efficiency Effect 0.00   -314.28 -333.16

Light Vehicles
 
Total Energy Use (PJ) 923.33   1,026.67 1,043.98

Energy Use by Transportation Mode (PJ)
Cars 705.47   533.39 530.86
Light Trucks 215.48   487.85 507.64
Motorcycles 2.37   5.43 5.48

Energy Use by Energy Source (PJ)
Natural Gas 1.14   1.20 0.93
Motor Gasoline 895.98   961.57 1,024.40
Diesel Fuel Oil 10.19   11.63 13.53
Ethanol 0.00   47.22 0.00
Biodiesel Fuel 0.00   0.00 0.00
Propane 16.02   5.04 5.13

Activity
Passenger-kilometres (millions) 388,069   514,454 526,043
Energy Intensity (MJ/Pkm) 2.38   2.00 1.98
Total Change in Energy (PJ) 0.00   103.34 120.65

Energy Indicator Analysis
 
Change in Energy Due to (PJ)
Activity Effect 0.00   406.01 432.76
Structure Effect 0.00   -81.89 -82.99
Energy Efficiency Effect 0.00   -220.78 -229.11

Cars
 
Total Energy Use (PJ) 705.47   533.39 530.86

Energy Use by Energy Source (PJ)
Natural Gas 1.14   1.20 0.92
Motor Gasoline 687.37   496.62 517.98
Diesel Fuel Oil 4.51   7.33 7.91
Ethanol 0.00   24.26 0.00
Biodiesel Fuel 0.00   0.00 0.00
Propane 12.45   3.99 4.05

Activity
Passenger-kilometres (millions) 311,376   295,273 295,844
Energy Intensity (MJ/Pkm) 2.27   1.81 1.79
Total Change in Energy (PJ) 0.00   -172.08 -174.61

Energy Indicator Analysis
 
Change in Energy Due to (PJ)
Activity Effect 0.00   261.67 275.42
Structure Effect 0.00   -290.14 -302.99
Energy Efficiency Effect 0.00   -143.60 -147.04

Light Trucks
 
Total Energy Use (PJ) 215.48   487.85 507.64

Energy Use by Energy Source (PJ)
Natural Gas 0.00   0.01 0.01
Motor Gasoline 206.23   459.77 500.94
Diesel Fuel Oil 5.68   4.30 5.61
Ethanol 0.00   22.72 0.00
Biodiesel Fuel 0.00   0.00 0.00
Propane 3.57   1.06 1.07

Activity
Passenger-kilometres (millions) 75,089   216,088 227,075
Energy Intensity (MJ/Pkm) 2.87   2.26 2.24
Total Change in Energy (PJ) 0.00   272.37 292.15

Energy Indicator Analysis
 
Change in Energy Due to (PJ)
Activity Effect 0.00   143.10 155.96
Structure Effect 0.00   207.56 219.38
Energy Efficiency Effect 0.00   -78.29 -83.18

Motorcycles
 
Total Energy Use (PJ) 2.37   5.43 5.48

Energy Use by Energy Source (PJ)
Motor Gasoline 2.37   5.18 5.48
Ethanol 0.00   0.24 0.00

Activity
Passenger-kilometres (millions) 1,604   3,092 3,125
Energy Intensity (MJ/Pkm) 1.48   1.75 1.75
Total Change in Energy (PJ) 0.00   3.05 3.11

Energy Indicator Analysis
 
Change in Energy Due to (PJ)
Activity Effect 0.00   1.24 1.38
Structure Effect 0.00   0.70 0.61
Energy Efficiency Effect 0.00   1.11 1.11

Buses
 
Total Energy Use (PJ) 46.00   58.08 55.31

Energy Use by Transportation Mode (PJ)
School Buses 13.45   12.11 12.21
Urban Transit 24.63   39.79 37.26
Inter-City Buses 7.92   6.18 5.85

Energy Use by Energy Source (PJ)
Electricity 3.10   3.79 3.81
Natural Gas 0.47   2.27 2.43
Motor Gasoline 6.46   1.40 1.49
Diesel Fuel Oil 33.21   50.55 47.60
Ethanol 0.00   0.07 0.00
Biodiesel Fuel 0.00   0.00 0.00
Propane 2.77   0.00 0.00

Activity
Passenger-kilometres (millions) 35,669   59,428 58,103
Energy Intensity (MJ/Pkm) 1.29   0.98 0.95
Total Change in Energy (PJ) 0.00   12.08 9.31

Energy Indicator Analysis
 
Change in Energy Due to (PJ)
Activity Effect 0.00   20.60 22.07
Structure Effect 0.00   7.48 3.67
Energy Efficiency Effect 0.00   -16.00 -16.42

School Buses
 
Total Energy Use (PJ) 13.45   12.11 12.21

Energy Use by Energy Source (PJ)
Natural Gas 0.00   0.00 0.00
Motor Gasoline 4.86   0.95 0.99
Diesel Fuel Oil 5.83   11.12 11.23
Ethanol 0.00   0.05 0.00
Biodiesel Fuel 0.00   0.00 0.00
Propane 2.76   0.00 0.00

Activity
Passenger-kilometres (millions) 15,013   28,767 28,604
Energy Intensity (MJ/Pkm) 0.90   0.42 0.43
Total Change in Energy (PJ) 0.00   -1.34 -1.24

Energy Indicator Analysis
 
Change in Energy Due to (PJ)
Activity Effect 0.00   5.65 5.97
Structure Effect 0.00   3.53 3.15
Energy Efficiency Effect 0.00   -10.52 -10.36

Urban Transit
 
Total Energy Use (PJ) 24.63   39.79 37.26

Energy Use by Energy Source (PJ)
Electricity 3.10   3.79 3.81
Natural Gas 0.47   2.27 2.43
Motor Gasoline 1.15   0.20 0.21
Diesel Fuel Oil 19.91   33.52 30.81
Ethanol 0.00   0.01 0.00
Biodiesel Fuel 0.00   0.00 0.00
Propane 0.00   0.00 0.00

Activity
Passenger-kilometres (millions) 12,821   23,817 22,247
Energy Intensity (MJ/Pkm) 1.92   1.67 1.67
Total Change in Energy (PJ) 0.00   15.16 12.63

Energy Indicator Analysis
 
Change in Energy Due to (PJ)
Activity Effect 0.00   12.10 13.10
Structure Effect 0.00   7.54 3.92
Energy Efficiency Effect 0.00   -4.48 -4.39

Inter-City Buses
 
Total Energy Use (PJ) 7.92   6.18 5.85

Energy Use by Energy Source (PJ)
Natural Gas 0.00   0.00 0.00
Motor Gasoline 0.45   0.26 0.29
Diesel Fuel Oil 7.47   5.91 5.56
Ethanol 0.00   0.01 0.00
Biodiesel Fuel 0.00   0.00 0.00
Propane 0.00   0.00 0.00

Activity
Passenger-kilometres (millions) 7,835   6,843 7,252
Energy Intensity (MJ/Pkm) 1.01   0.90 0.81
Total Change in Energy (PJ) 0.00   -1.74 -2.07

Energy Indicator Analysis
 
Change in Energy Due to (PJ)
Activity Effect 0.00   2.85 3.00
Structure Effect 0.00   -3.59 -3.40
Energy Efficiency Effect 0.00   -0.99 -1.67

Passenger Rail
 
Total Energy Use (PJ) 3.75   1.99 2.11

Energy Use by Energy Source (PJ)
Diesel Fuel Oil 3.75   1.99 2.11

Activity
Passenger-kilometres (millions) 1,782   1,327 1,349
Energy Intensity (MJ/Pkm) 2.11   1.50 1.57
Total Change in Energy (PJ) 0.00   -1.77 -1.64

Energy Indicator Analysis
 
Change in Energy Due to (PJ)
Activity Effect 0.00   1.10 1.15
Structure Effect 0.00   -2.05 -2.06
Energy Efficiency Effect 0.00   -0.82 -0.73

Passenger Air
 
Total Energy Use (PJ) 180.92   264.03 266.67

Energy Use by Energy Source (PJ)
Commercial Aviation – Aviation Gasoline 1.56   1.31 1.64
Commercial Aviation – Aviation Turbo Fuel 140.09   242.30 244.80
Non-Commercial Aviation – Aviation Gasoline 3.87   0.56 0.49
Non-Commercial Aviation – Aviation Turbo Fuel 35.39   19.87 19.74

Activity
Passenger-kilometres (millions) 66,776   167,108 176,255
Energy Intensity Excluding Non-Commercial Aviation (MJ/Pkm) 2.12   1.46 1.40
Total Change in Energy Excluding Non-Commercial Aviation (PJ) 0.00   101.96 104.79

Energy Indicator Analysis
 
Change in Energy Due to (PJ)
Activity Effect 0.00   74.03 80.36
Structure Effect 0.00   104.60 111.33
Energy Efficiency Effect 0.00   -76.68 -86.90

Total Freight Transportation
 
Total Energy Use (PJ) 670.54   1,184.19 1,154.82

Energy Use by Transportation Mode (PJ)
Light Trucks (0 to 3,855 kg [0 to 8,500 lb.]) 97.57   192.65 199.64
Medium Trucks (3,856 to 14,969 kg [8,501 to 33,000 lb.]) 120.59   314.77 305.35
Heavy Trucks (14,970 kg [33,001 lb.] or more) 253.63   497.25 486.89
Air 6.52   5.99 5.54
Rail 85.71   93.42 92.38
Marine 106.52   80.11 65.02

Energy Use by Energy Source (PJ)
Natural Gas 0.06   0.44 0.57
Motor Gasoline 164.61   324.58 343.77
Diesel Fuel Oil 422.64   781.08 764.90
Ethanol 0.00   15.92 0.00
Biodiesel Fuel 0.00   0.00 0.00
Light Fuel Oil and Kerosene 0.00   0.00 0.00
Heavy Fuel Oil 60.14   50.78 34.56
Aviation Gasoline 0.07   0.03 0.04
Aviation Turbo Fuel 6.45   5.96 5.51
Propane 16.57   5.40 5.47

Activity
Tonne-kilometres (millions) 574,543   959,523 971,527
Energy Intensity (MJ/Tkm) 1.17   1.23 1.19
Total Change in Energy (PJ) 0.00   513.65 484.28

Energy Indicator Analysis
 
Change in Energy Due to (PJ)
Activity Effect 0.00   469.47 484.00
Structure Effect 0.00   297.08 309.89
Energy Efficiency Effect 0.00   -252.89 -309.61

Truck – Freight Transportation
 
Total Energy Use (PJ) 471.79   1,004.67 991.88

Energy Use by Transportation Mode (PJ)
Light Trucks (0 to 3,855 kg [0 to 8,500 lb.]) 97.57   192.65 199.64
Medium Trucks (3,856 to 14,969 kg [8,501 to 33,000 lb.]) 120.59   314.77 305.35
Heavy Trucks (14,970 kg [33,001 lb.] or more) 253.63   497.25 486.89

Energy Use by Energy Source (PJ)
Natural Gas 0.06   0.44 0.57
Motor Gasoline 164.61   324.58 343.77
Diesel Fuel Oil 290.55   658.33 642.07
Ethanol 0.00   15.92 0.00
Biodiesel Fuel 0.00   0.00 0.00
Propane 16.57   5.40 5.47

Activity
Tonne-kilometres (millions) 134,572   341,750 354,985
Energy Intensity (MJ/Tkm) 3.51   2.94 2.79
Total Change in Energy (PJ) 0.00   532.89 520.09

Energy Indicator Analysis
 
Change in Energy Due to (PJ)
Activity Effect 0.00   372.23 384.64
Structure Effect 0.00   346.58 361.65
Energy Efficiency Effect 0.00   -185.92 -226.20

Light Trucks (0 to 3,855 kg [0 to 8,500 lb.])
 
Total Energy Use (PJ) 97.57   192.65 199.64

Energy Use by Energy Source (PJ)
Natural Gas 0.06   0.19 0.18
Motor Gasoline 79.39   177.20 192.46
Diesel Fuel Oil 2.18   1.69 2.12
Ethanol 0.00   8.77 0.00
Biodiesel Fuel 0.00   0.00 0.00
Propane 15.95   4.80 4.88

Activity
Tonne-kilometres (millions) 10,508   27,071 28,328
Energy Intensity (MJ/Tkm) 9.28   7.12 7.05
Total Change in Energy (PJ) 0.00   95.09 102.07

Energy Indicator Analysis
 
Change in Energy Due to (PJ)
Activity Effect 0.00   74.41 76.85
Structure Effect 0.00   58.94 65.41
Energy Efficiency Effect 0.00   -38.26 -40.18

Medium Trucks (3,856 to 14,969 kg [8,501 to 33,000 lb.])
 
Total Energy Use (PJ) 120.59   314.77 305.35

Energy Use by Energy Source (PJ)
Natural Gas 0.00   0.25 0.39
Motor Gasoline 85.22   147.39 151.31
Diesel Fuel Oil 34.75   159.40 153.06
Ethanol 0.00   7.14 0.00
Biodiesel Fuel 0.00   0.00 0.00
Propane 0.62   0.60 0.59

Activity
Tonne-kilometres (millions) 13,630   49,978 49,261
Energy Intensity (MJ/Tkm) 8.85   6.30 6.20
Total Change in Energy (PJ) 0.00   194.18 184.76

Energy Indicator Analysis
 
Change in Energy Due to (PJ)
Activity Effect 0.00   100.75 104.60
Structure Effect 0.00   164.76 156.43
Energy Efficiency Effect 0.00   -71.33 -76.27

Heavy Trucks (14,970 kg [33,001 lb.] or more)
 
Total Energy Use (PJ) 253.63   497.25 486.89

Energy Use by Energy Source (PJ)
Diesel Fuel Oil 253.63   497.25 486.89
Biodiesel Fuel 0.00   0.00 0.00

Activity
Tonne-kilometres (millions) 110,434   264,702 277,396
Energy Intensity (MJ/Tkm) 2.30   1.88 1.76
Total Change in Energy (PJ) 0.00   243.62 233.26

Energy Indicator Analysis
 
Change in Energy Due to (PJ)
Activity Effect 0.00   197.07 203.19
Structure Effect 0.00   122.88 139.81
Energy Efficiency Effect 0.00   -76.33 -109.74

Marine
 
Total Energy Use (PJ) 106.52   80.11 65.02

Energy Use by Energy Source (PJ)
Diesel Fuel Oil 46.38   29.33 30.46
Heavy Fuel Oil 60.14   50.78 34.56

Activity
Tonne-kilometres (millions) 189,869   199,935 202,637
Energy Intensity (MJ/Tkm) 0.56   0.40 0.32
Total Change in Energy (PJ) 0.00   -26.41 -41.50

Energy Indicator Analysis
 
Change in Energy Due to (PJ)
Activity Effect 0.00   52.26 53.16
Structure Effect 0.00   -48.69 -48.62
Energy Efficiency Effect 0.00   -29.98 -46.04

Freight Rail
 
Total Energy Use (PJ) 85.71   93.42 92.38

Energy Use by Energy Source (PJ)
Diesel Fuel Oil 85.71   93.42 92.38

Activity
Tonne-kilometres (millions) 248,348   415,462 411,623
Energy Intensity (MJ/Tkm) 0.35   0.22 0.22
Total Change in Energy (PJ) 0.00   7.71 6.67

Energy Indicator Analysis
 
Change in Energy Due to (PJ)
Activity Effect 0.00   41.21 42.37
Structure Effect 0.00   0.94 -1.08
Energy Efficiency Effect 0.00   -34.44 -34.62

Freight Air
 
Total Energy Use (PJ) 6.52   5.99 5.54

Energy Use by Energy Source (PJ)
Aviation Gasoline 0.07   0.03 0.04
Aviation Turbo Fuel 6.45   5.96 5.51

Activity
Tonne-kilometres (millions) 1,754   2,376 2,283
Energy Intensity (MJ/Tkm) 3.72   2.52 2.43
Total Change in Energy (PJ) 0.00   -0.53 -0.98

Energy Indicator Analysis
 
Change in Energy Due to (PJ)
Activity Effect 0.00   3.77 3.84
Structure Effect 0.00   -1.75 -2.06
Energy Efficiency Effect 0.00   -2.54 -2.76

Footnotes:

1) “Off Road” includes vehicles not registered for on-road travel such as ATVs, snowmobiles, golf carts and some military vehicles.