Qualifying Criteria for
Commercial Ovens

Version 1.1 – January 2011

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A product shall meet all of the identified criteria if it is to earn the ENERGY STAR symbol.

1) Definitions

  1. Commercial Oven
    A chamber designed for heating, roasting, or baking food by conduction, convection, radiation, and/or electromagnetic energy.¹
  2. Product Family
    Variations of one model offered within a single product line based on the same engineering design with differences limited to door options (e.g., solid, glass).

¹ NSF 170-2005, Glossary of food equipment terminology.

Oven Types

  1. Combination Oven
    An oven that combines the function of hot air convection (oven mode) and saturated/superheated steam heating (steam mode), or both (combi mode), to perform steaming, baking, roasting, rethermalizing, and proofing of various food products. Also referred to as a combination oven/steamer, combi or combo.
  2. Convection Oven
    A general-purpose oven that cooks food by forcing hot dry air over the surface of the food product. The rapidly moving hot air strips away the layer of cooler air next to the food and enables the food to absorb the heat energy. For the purposes of this specification, convection ovens do not include ovens that have the ability to heat the cooking cavity with saturated or superheated steam. Maximum water consumption within the oven cavity must not exceed 0.95 litre/hour (0.25 gallons/hour). Ovens that include a hold feature are eligible under this specification as long as convection is the only method used to fully cook the food.
    • Full-Size Convection Oven: A convection oven that is able to accept a minimum of five standard full-size sheet pans measuring 46 x 66 x 2.5-cm (18 x 26 x 1-inch).
    • Half-Size Convection Oven: A convection oven that is able to accept a minimum of five sheet pans measuring 46 x 66 x 2.5-cm (18 x 26 x 1-inch).
  3. Conventional or Standard Oven
    An oven that cooks food primarily using the naturally occurring hot air currents to transfer heat over the surface of the food product without the use of a fan or blower. The burner or elements heat the air within the oven cavity as well as the cavity walls, causing currents of hot air that transfer heat to the surface of the food. The hot air's buoyancy carries it upward through cooler air, which then slowly sinks to the bottom of the oven as it cools off.
  4. Conveyor Oven
    An oven designed to carry food product on a moving belt into and through a heated chamber.
  5. Slow Cook-and-Hold Oven
    An oven designed specifically for low-temperature (e.g., less than 149°C (300°F) cooking, followed by a holding period at a specified temperature.
  6. Deck Oven
    An oven that cooks food product directly on the floor of a heated chamber. The bottom of each compartment is called a deck and heat is typically supplied by burners or elements located beneath the deck. The oven ceiling, floor, and walls are designed to absorb heat quickly and radiate that heat back slowly and evenly.
  7. Mini-Rack Oven
    A rack oven that has the ability to produce steam internally and includes an internal rotating rack where pans are manually pushed into the racks. Mini-rack ovens typically hold 5 – 8 full-size sheet pans.
  8. Rack (Roll-In) Oven
    A high-capacity oven, with the ability to produce steam internally and fitted with a motor-driven mechanism for rotating multiple pans fitted into one or more pan racks within the cavity.
    • Single Rack Oven: A rack oven that is able to hold one full rack of sheet pans of product at a time, based on nominal 10 cm (4-inch) spacing between pans.
    • Double Rack Oven: A rack oven that is able to hold two single racks or one double-width rack, based on nominal 10 cm (4-inch) spacing between pans.
  9. Range Oven
    An oven base for a commercial range top (i.e., burners, electric elements or hobs). Range ovens may use either standard or convection technologies to cook food.
  10. Rapid Cook Oven
    An oven that utilizes one or more non-traditional heat transfer technologies to cook food product significantly faster than would be possible using conventional (e.g., convection, conduction, radiant) heat transfer technologies. Heat transfer technologies that may be employed include microwave, quartz halogen, and high-velocity or impingement convection.
  11. Rotisserie Oven
    An oven fitted with a mechanism to move or turn food past a fixed heat source while the food is slowly being cooked on all sides.

Energy Efficiency Metrics

  1. Cooking Energy Efficiency
    The ratio of energy absorbed by the food product to the total energy supplied to the oven during cooking.
  2. Idle Energy Rate
    The rate of oven energy consumption while it is maintaining or holding at a stabilized operating condition or temperature. Also called standby energy rate.

2) Scope

  1. Included Products:
    Products that meet the definitions of a Commercial Oven and Convection Oven as specified herein are eligible for ENERGY STAR qualification, with the exception of products listed in Section 2.B. Only commercial full-size gas and half- and full-size electric convection ovens, as defined in Section 1D above, are eligible under this specification.

    To ensure only commercial ovens qualify under this specification, products shall be third-party certified to NSF/ANSI Standard 4, Commercial Cooking, Rethermalization and Powered Hot Food Holding and Transport Equipment.

  2. Excluded Products:
    This specification is intended for commercial food-grade ovens. Ovens designed for residential or laboratory applications cannot qualify for ENERGY STAR. Hybrid ovens, such as those incorporating steam and/or microwave settings in addition to convection, are excluded from this specification. Other oven types excluded, as defined in Section 1, include: combination; conventional or standard; conveyor; slow cook-and-hold; deck; mini-rack; rack; range; rapid cook; and rotisserie.

3) Qualification Criteria

  1. Cooking Energy Efficiency and Idle Energy Rate Requirements:
    Table 1: Energy Efficiency Requirements for Convection Ovens
    Heavy Load Potato Cooking Energy Efficiency ≥ 44%
    Idle Energy Rate ≤ 13,000 Btu/h
    Heavy Load Potato Cooking Energy Efficiency ≥ 70%
    Idle Energy Rate ≤ 1.0 kW
    Heavy Load Potato Cooking Energy Efficiency ≥ 70%
    Idle Energy Rate ≤ 1.6 kW
  2. Significant Digits and Rounding
    1. All calculations shall be carried out with actual measured or observed values. Only the final result of a calculation shall be rounded. Calculated results shall be rounded to the nearest significant digit as expressed in the corresponding specification limit.
    2. Unless otherwise specified, compliance with specification limits shall be evaluated using exact values without any benefit from rounding.

4) Test Requirements

  1. Representative Models shall be selected for testing per the following requirements:
    1. For qualification of an individual product model, the representative model shall be equivalent to that which is intended to be marketed and labelled as ENERGY STAR.
    2. For qualification of a product family, the most energy consuming model within the product family shall serve as the representative model.
  2. When testing commercial ovens, the following test methods shall be used to determine ENERGY STAR qualification:
    Table 2: Test Methods for ENERGY STAR Qualification
    ENERGY STAR Requirement Test Method Reference
    Cooking Energy Efficiency ASTM F1496-99 (Reapproved 2005), Standard Test Method for Performance of Convection Ovens
    Idle Energy Rate
  3. For ovens with variable Btu/h or kW input, each available input shall be tested individually and meet the cooking energy efficiency and idle energy rate requirements presented in Table 1 of this specification.
  4. If the representative model under test includes a set back mode, this feature must be disabled during testing for purposes of ENERGY STAR qualification.

5) Effective Date

The ENERGY STAR Commercial Oven Specification shall take effect on May 16, 2009. To qualify for ENERGY STAR, a product model shall meet the ENERGY STAR specification in effect on the model's date of manufacture. The date of manufacture is specific to each unit and is the date (e.g., month and year) on which a unit is considered to be completely assembled.

6) Future Specification Revisions

ENERGY STAR reserves the right to change the specification should technological and/or market changes affect its usefulness to consumers, industry, or the environment. In keeping with current policy, revisions to the specification are arrived at through industry discussions. In the event of a specification revision, please note that ENERGY STAR qualification is not automatically granted for the life of a product model.

Combination and Other Oven Types
Approximately one year after the effective date of this Version 1.0 specification (i.e., May 2010), EPA will evaluate whether to extend coverage to combination ovens and other oven types defined in Section 1, above. Inclusion of these additional oven types will depend on stakeholder interest, test procedure availability, and access to a sufficient quantity of product performance data.